Vat. ebr. 448

This imposing Sephardic Pentateuch was probably made in Spain (or in North Africa) and is datable to the late 11th–early 12th century. It includes Targum Onkelos after every verse, with sublinear Babylonian vocalization that was changed to Tiberian punctuation by a later hand. Written in a magnificent Sephardic square script, with a brownish ink, its text is disposed in three columns. Genesis i:1–ii:17 was supplied at the beginning of the codex (ff. 1–2) from another manuscript, written in Italy in the mid-late 15th century. Previously owned by the Ottoboni family, it was eventually acquired by Pope Benedict XIV in 1748, along with the whole Ottobonian manuscript collection.